If History repeats itself…

…then the story of the older silver mine of Silpatjåkkå, nestled in a seldom visited area of Padjelanta National Park, could very well have close similarities to today’s Jokkmokk. It’s a story of false hopes, egos and deceit and a dependency to subventions to keep it alive, though the inevitable downfall and abandonment fastly approached. Silpatjåkkå’s story is a 40 year old rise and fall with complicated details and many actors involved, but let’s briefly look at what it was all about…

Firstly, in the 17th century, Sweden had dreams of becoming a great power and was trying to establish a personal Scandinavian empire by attaining control over Finland, Russia, parts of Norway and other Baltic regions through its Great 30-year War. Secondly, we have to keep in mind that Europe’s economic theory during the 17th century was that of mercantilism. With the costs of warfare abroad and the need to be a key economic figure, the discovery of new silver mines, which increased economic values, within Sweden’s territory was a solution to both of these needs.

So, it wasn’t so surprising that, after a small invasion on the Nasa Silver Mine and its destruction by invading Norwegian troops in 1658, that King Karl IX demanded that new silver deposits would be searched for. One Saami scout, keenly knowledgeable of the mountains, the terrain and how to search for precious metals spoke about a new stretch of silver in Jokkmokk’s mountains. The man was Jon Persson, a Tuorpan Saami, and the place was “Kietiewarri”, or what was later to be named “Silbbatjåhkkå” meaning “The Silver Hill” in Saamish.

resize-of-kamajokkview01.jpgPhoto: The Kamajokk Stream gave energy to the smelting works at Kvikkjokk.

A state owned, or royal, company was formed called Luleå Silverworks and was responsible for and in control of Silpatjåkkå and its exploitation. Needing a mining foreman, the earlier mining foreman from Nasa Silver Mine, Isak Tiock, was chosen and sent to the Jokkmokk mountains to start working the prospect. Buildings, smelting ovens and forges had to be built and all this saw the birth of the little village of Kvikkjokk. Here was an ample supply of trees for charcoal and rushing waters for power to drive a water wheel.

The journey to Kvikkjokk was by foot and a series of rowboats. To get to the silver mine, hiking for the workers, horseback for higher ranking people and reindeer with sledges were the more common means of transportation.

The workers were conscripted in the same manner as soldiers at the time. They came from the eastern seaboard of northern Sweden and sent inland to work as miners. Many who were conscripted and were wealthy, paid themselves free of duty by sending someone less advantageous in their place. At the silver mine itself, a dwelling was erected for the miners, who spent most of the winter working in the open mine shafts or pumping out water in the summer months.

The Saami were also conscripted into serving the mine. They were paid for their transportation services, using reindeer and sledges to haul needed supplies to the mine and silver ore on the return trip back to Kvikkjokk. Some wealthier Saami, too, could pay themselves free from duty, sending a replacement for themselves, or many just escaped duty by going to nearby Norway.

resize-of-163-6352_img.JPGPhoto: A cast iron stove from the 1770’s at Silpatjåkkå

Whatever the situation, both workers and Saami had difficult working conditions. Both were to receive wages in the form of felt, sugar, tobacco etc. but the first few years showed that no one was getting paid. Isak Tiock, the mining foreman and known for his harsh treatment of the Saami at the Nasa Silver Mine, where he dragged Saami under the winter ice until they were willing to work or,more often, died of pneumonia, had refused to pay the miners and Saami of Luleå Silverworks and Silpatjåkkå. He cheated them out of their wages and kept this for himself. It wasn’t until after a royal commission visited Kvikkjokk and inspected the conditions there that he was fired from his job as mining foreman, charged and taken to court for his actions and eventually was jailed. Afterwards, both miners and Saami were paid in full for their work.

Through the years, many royal commissions were sent to Kvikkjokk to inspect the mines and the the king’s investments. Almost with each commission, requests for more money were given and more capital was poured into Silpatjåkkå silver mine. In 1672, another mine was opened in Alkavare and increased the investments. At its best, the Sipatjåkkå Silver Mine produced only some 550 kg of silver and 1500 kg of lead over a 40 year period, which ended in 1702. A small fortune for the times had been invested in the Silpatjåkkå Silver Mine but, in comparison, very little had been gained and the whole venture was an economic tragedy.

After 1702, several other private entrepreneurs gained rights to mine silver in Silpatjåkkå. Abraham Steinholtz apparently did some work in 1745 and Prof. Jonas Meldercreutz seemingly worked the mines in 1769. Small scale mining interests were shown in the late 19th century, though not necessarily for silver but for other minerals. Some companies are documented and others were unknown “wild cards”. Many came to Silpatjåkkå and went away with shattered dreams of easy riches.

resize-of-silpavy01.jpgPhoto: Hedwigs Mine from late 17th century as it looks today

In the early times of Silpatjåkkå, whoever was involved with wanting to resume mining at the place were granted a general tax relief, but no one could ever make the silver mines profitable nor economically in balance. Was a tax relief a motivation for interest in Silpatjåkkå more so than actually working the mine? As from the beginning, Silpatjåkkå would always be dependent upon state aid or other subventions for its survival. The village of Kvikkjokk had as many as some eighty people living there in the late 17th century. Now, there is only a handful of permanent residents and the village struggles without real signs of progressive development.

It should be added that Silpatjåkkå has been an object of historical interest and research since 1993. The research project The Older Mines of Jokkmokk, founded by Kenneth Awebro and Tim Senften, has successfully carried out extensive archival and field research of Silpatjåkkå and has found new information about the silver mine and its historical significance. The larger mine holes are still there, but new evidence has been discovered showing that a greater exploitation, than what was earlier thought of, has occurred. The original building sites from 1660 can easily be found together with the mine holes at 1250 meters above sea level.

Hiking Tips: A long days hike from Staloluokta. No direct path; use map and compass and follow the eastern side of Viejevagge Valley. The mine area is given on the BD10 map. Often foggy and poor weather at that height above sea level. Difficult to find a level spot for a tent. Please– this is an important heritage place so don’t disturb anything and pick-up/take-out all scrap!

Next: Alkavare Silver Mine- a complement to Silpatjåkkå

Jokkmokk’s Winter Market…

…officially started with a declaration from, at that time, the Swedish King Karl IX. Officially? Because there is no written evidence that can show a practice of having markets in Jokkmokk before this year, although it is quite probable. A market provided an opportunity for gathering, paying taxes, doing a census of the inhabitants and gave a reason for baptisms, weddings and any court or judicial work.

In 1632, silver was found in the Nasa Mountain region near Norway and was Norrbottens first silver mine. It was a privately owned venture, from owners in Piteå, and acquired a reputation of being harsh and unjust with the Saami, who many were apparently forced into labor to help with transporting silver ore.

resize-of-ruotevaregruvhalvy01.jpgPhoto: Older mine hole on Ruotevare as witness to Norrbottens very first iron mine from 1638

So, it wasn’t so strange that during the 1638 winter market in Jokkmokk, a man by the name of Hans Fillip Lybecker was found walking the path through the old market area of Jokkmokk. He was the regional mine inspector working with the Nasa Silver Mine. Imaginably, he was dressed in a wolf skin winter coat and wearing reindeer boots common for the Saami in winter. Perhaps, too, he was clothed in a wolf skin coat tied in the middle with a knife belt and carrying a pair of skis on his shoulders. Or, had arrived from Luleå by way of reindeer and sled?

However the situation was, Hans Fillip Lybecker was in Jokkmokk. He was waiting for a supply of goods that would be further transported to the Nasa Silver Mine. And not so unlikely, he was sitting in a dimly lit, but warm, dirt hut on Dalvatis Hill, in the middle of the bustling market place, staring into a candle on the table and sipping from a small flask of home brew to keep extra warm with, when two Saami unexpectedly rushed down into the hut searching for him.

As these two stood in front of Lybecker, they held in their outstretched hands a few large rocks. Hans Lybecker took the candle and held it closer to get a better look at the rocks and, to his amazement, found them to be iron ore. He asked the two Saami, “Where did these come from?” They explained that they had found the rocks on a hill some twelve kilometers south of Jokkmokk. The hill had a Saamish name. Kiälmä Åiffde, or Kielm Oiwe, meaning “Iron Hill” it was called and there was more of the rock to be found.

Next day, Hans Lybecker headed south for Kielm Oiwe Hill together with several other Saami who followed to help him. When having arrived, the Saami shoveled snow away from the ground and more iron ore samples could be gathered. It is always bitter cold and very dark during winter market in Jokkmokk and coldly unwelcoming in the nearby forests.

Hans Fillip Lybecker sent these samples by courier to Stockholm and Queen Kristina, who was the head of royalty at the time. She decided that this was an exceptionally rich find of iron ore and sent word back to Lybecker that she would grant tax privileges to anyone interested in mining the iron at “The Iron Hill”.

resize-of-ruotevaretillmakningvy04.jpgPhoto: searching for ore using the bonfire method from early 16th century

And, there were people interested! The richer citizens and farmers of Luleå, at that time Gammalstad or “The Old City”, wanted to exploit the iron in Jokkmokk that coming summer. Hans Fillip Lybecker would keep an eye on their progress and report this to Queen Kristina. The citizens and farmers were very enthusiastic with their attempts to mine the iron out of the ground, but they had no experience with mining and found the work very difficult. Seemingly, they were working the ground with ordinary axes trying to hack-out the iron ore in this manner.

Lybecker reported that the work was difficult for these Luleå citizens. The citizens worked the hill next coming summer, 1639, and finally gave up. Either because it was too much work and not enough profit or that Jokkmokk was too far from Luleå or… We don’t know more than they just gave-up and stopped working. Besides these notes, that Hans Fillip Lybecker wrote about this iron mine attempt, there exists a handwritten map showing where Kielm Oiwe can be found and how to get to it from Luleå.

This was the very first iron mine of Norrbotten. Many others came after and tried their luck at mining iron south of Jokkmokk. Among these could be mining adventurers like Regement Commisioner Olof Uneus, from Boden, who knew about “…Rutivare in Jockmock” and Carl von Linneus wrote about the iron ore in his Lapland travels of 1732. Prof. Jonas Medelcruetz or Abraham Steinholz was probably interested in Ruotevare’s exploitation in the 18th century as well as baron Samuel G. Hermelin och Jon Engström in the 19th century.

resize-of-ruotevareskarpning03.JPGPhoto: signs of prospecting from early 18th century

Lastly, there were many claims for Ruotevare during the 20th century. This time, not for iron but for deposits of feltspat and quartz. These were shipped by train to the smelting works in Porjus.

The last work done on Ruotevare was in the early 1950’s, when mine owner A. Thelin was killed. As he was climbing up a ladder, the charging caps he had in his back pocket accidentally exploded and he was rushed to the small hospital in Jokkmokk where he died. Today, there are plans of making Ruotevare into a nature reservation, but the remnants of over 350 years of mining still remain as an historical reminder for the residents of and visitors to Jokkmokk.

PS– A detailed historical account with remnant examples and cataloging results from research on Ruotevare can be found in a still unpublished report (2005) that Norrbottens Länsstyrelsen, Kulturmiljöenhet has. Call and ask about it! I can’t understand why they have difficulties with making this available to the public i.e. taxpayers? (Could it be that it is so well done, they just want it all for themselves?)

PSS– Today, February 1, 2008, I found a copy of the Ruotevare Report in the mailbox. Seemingly the report will soon be published on Norrbottens Länsstyrelsen website as well as hard copies can be had after it goes through the printers. Hats off for the regional government?

The older mines of Jokkmokk…

…have, in comparison to other parts of Sweden, a unique history. Yes, the silver mine of Sala, the copper mine of Falun and many other mines in southern Sweden can be older or larger, but, for being in Lapland and in an isolated area such as the Laponia mountains, Jokkmokks mining history is filled with a historically interesting and significant past.

As people progressed northwards in their search for a new life, some of the very first Swedes to push into the northern inland areas were miners and prospectors. Many of these came and went, but some stayed on after mining adventures and became the first settlers giving birth to small villages that still exist today. But, the story of searching for natural wealth and new settlements starts even longer ago. In the blog pages to come, let’s take a look at this past and briefly touch upon the stories of Jokkmokk’s older mines. To give a short but decent picture of these mines and better understand the story, we must first travel long ago back in time…

resize-of-dsc_0121.JPGPhoto: Jokkmokk’s and Laponia’s older mines take us into an exciting past

There were a lot of exiting things going on in Western Europe after the fall of Rome in the early middle ages (500-1000 A.D.) and a time when people started to move and explore more of the known world. One popular group at this time where the Vikings and one Viking king was known to have ruled over most of the northern Norwegian coastline and as far inland as the regions of Lapland. This was King Othere from Hålogaland. During his rule, he had declared that he had sole rights to all land between the Atlantic ocean and eastwards into Russia and he had the sovereign right to tax all inhabitants. In this case, the people living in this area were the reindeer breeding Saami.

Throughout history there are people taxing other people and either used force or cunning to reap in personal wealth. With the start of King Othere’s taxation on the Saami people, other groups of people believed they, too, had the right to tax the Saami during the next few centuries. These people were from Finland or eastern Russia and consisted of several groups, all doing trade with the Saami. The more popular of these unorganized groups were called “Birkalar” and were for centuries freelancing entrepreneurs selling their talents to collect taxes for different heads of state as they did trade.

During the 16th century, the Swedish King Gustav Wasa also proclaimed his right of ownership for all land between Russia and “the western sea”, or the North Atlantic, and entered into a contract with the Birkarls to collect taxes from the Saami for his part. Afterwards, the Birkarls worked for other Swedish royalty up until King Karl IX, who started free markets in the north of which the most popular was the Jokkmokk Market in 1604.

To pay taxes, the commodities that the Saami had at hand were natural goods. Furs, dried meats, fish etc. were the most common but, because of the Saami’s unique knowledge of the land and mountains from centuries of migration, they also knew about the value of pearls from freshwater mussels (Margaritana Margaritifera) and the clear quartz of Sweden called “Swedish diamonds”. A very small group of Saami even specialized in finding and collecting these two valuables and it isn’t unbelievable that freshwater pearls and “Swedish diamonds” were used to pay taxes. The latter, “Swedish diamonds”, was used as a substitute for flint to start fires with or flintlock weaponry.

With hundreds of years of taxation and the knowledge of the value of the “Swedish diamond” or quartz and its uses, it seems highly likely that the Saami paid taxes with quartz and mined small amounts of this in areas of Northern Sweden; among these near Jokkmokk in a place called “the iron hill” or Ruovddeváre in Saamish.

Next: Ruotevare– The first iron mine in Northern Sweden